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The best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals

The best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals

The best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals

The best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals? Of course, vitamins and minerals interact so that many processes in your body work optimally. Many nutrients act synergistically, so that a deficiency in one may appear or exacerbate a deficiency in another and vice versa. For certain pairs of vitamins, the balance is delicate, the pairs in certain situations improving the work of the other, and in other situations, they are opposed.

Here is a brief overview of the synergistic relationships and interactions between vitamins and minerals. If you lack a certain vitamin or mineral or just want to cover all the bases with a daily MVM (multivitamins/minerals), these tips will help you take them wisely and get the most out of them.

Vitamin A + Vitamin E

Vitamin E enhances vitamin A intestinal absorption at medium to high concentrations, up to 40 percent. They work synergistically to prevent or support obesity, metabolic syndrome, inflammation, immune response, brain health, hearing loss.

A 1996 study has shown that when all-trans-retinol alone is ineffective, the combination of all-trans-retinol with alpha-tocopherol causes an inhibition period far beyond the sum of the inhibition periods observed with individual antioxidants, proving synergistic interactions. [1]

The interactions between vitamins A and E have been mainly studied in vitamin A-deficient rats. These studies have shown that ocular symptoms such as exophthalmos develop more quickly when vitamin E reserves are low (McLaren, 1959). The mechanisms by which vitamin E spares vitamin A include: protecting vitamin Oxidation in the intestinal lumen; increased intestinal absorption of vitamin A; increased storage of vitamin A.[2]

Vitamin A + Iodine

Retinoic acid is involved in iodine uptake.[3] Severe vitamin A deficiency decreases iodine absorption and affects thyroid metabolism. Iodine deficiency and vitamin A deficiency lead to a more severe case of primary hypothyroidism than iodine deficiency alone.

A 2007 study[4] of the interactions of vitamin A and iodine deficiency found that African children with vitamin A deficiency (VAD) in children with severe iodine deficiency disorders (IDD) increase the stimulation of thyrotropin (TSH) and the size of the thyroid, and reduce the risk of hypothyroidism.

Vitamin A + Iron

A 1984 study found that high vitamin A intake was associated with significantly lower mean hepatic iron levels for the group with high dietary iron intake. These data support the hypothesis that vitamin A is involved in the regulation of iron release by the liver.[5]

Vitamin A increases iron absorption, especially non-heme iron. Iron increases the bioavailability of pro-vitamin A carotenoids, including alpha-carotene, beta-carotene, and beta-cryptoxanthin.

A longitudinal study has shown that vitamin A and beta-carotene can form a complex with iron, keeping it soluble in the intestinal lumen and preventing the inhibitory effect of phytates and polyphenols on iron absorption.[6]

Vitamin A + Zinc

Absorption, metabolism, hepatic release, transport, and tissue utilization of vitamin A may depend, in part, on adequate zinc status.[7]

Zinc is a mineral that helps maintain the health of the retina, cell membranes, and protein structure of the eye. Zinc allows vitamin A to travel from the liver to the retina to produce melanin, a pigment that protects the eyes from ultraviolet (UV) light.

Zinc by protein synthesis helps in the transport of vitamin A and also, the oxidative conversion of retinol to retina made by retinol dehydrogenase enzyme retinol depends on zinc.

According to the American Optometric Association, zinc supplementation may help people who have AMD or are at risk of developing the condition. Taking 40–80 mg of zinc each day, alongside certain antioxidants, could slow the progression of advanced AMD by 25%. It could also reduce visual acuity loss by 19%.

Supplementing with vitamin A and zinc in children led to a reduced risk of infection and increased linear growth and thus may play a key role in control and strategies for infection and stunted for children under five years old.

B-vitamins

B vitamins, especially vitamins B2, B6, B9, B12 often work together. also, B vitamins work together and play a key role as cofactors and enzymes in carbon metabolism, which is involved in amino acid metabolism, nucleotide metabolism, and DNA methylation.

These cofactors and enzymes also participate in energy metabolism. A balance of B vitamins supports brain health, including neuronal development and prevention of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as cardiovascular health.

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Vitamin B1 (Thiamin)+ Magnasium

Thiamine, also known as thiamine and vitamin B1, contributes to normal energy metabolism, normal functioning of the nervous system, psychological and heart function. Thiamine is found in many food sources such as whole grains, legumes, and meat.

Magnesium is necessary to convert thiamine to its biologically active form and is also necessary for certain enzymes dependent on thiamine. You cannot treat a thiamine deficiency if you have a magnesium deficiency.

The results of a 2012 study on fish showed that the concentrations of thiamin in the trunk muscle and Mg of the whole body were closely associated with the dietary level of two nutrients. The interaction of low levels of Mg and thiamine resulted in an apparent worsening of the manifest symptoms of thiamine deficiency in lake trout, resulting in higher fish mortality during the seven-week trial.[8]

Vitamin B3 (Niacin) + Zinc

Niacin is the generic name for nicotinic acid (pyridine-3-carboxylic acid), which like other B vitamins, helps the body to break down carbohydrates, fats, and proteins into energy. Niacin is naturally present in many foods, added to certain food products, and available as a dietary supplement.

Niacin is used by prescription (Niacor, Niaspan) to control cholesterol. The recommended daily amount of niacin for adult men is 16 milligrams (mg) per day and for adult women who are not pregnant, 14 mg per day.

Niacin is part of the process of metabolizing the formation of serotonin from an amino acid called tryptophan. Therefore, a niacin deficiency can have a direct impact on mood by affecting your serotonin production.

A 2011 study found that nicotinic acid supplementation could provide a dose-dependent improvement in hepatic zinc level and better antioxidant markers, including less lipid peroxidation, reduced glutathione levels.[9]

Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine) + Magnasium

Vitamin B6 also known as pyridoxine is a water-soluble vitamin that has several important functions, including allowing the body to use and store the energy of proteins and carbohydrates in food. It also helps form hemoglobin, the substance that carries oxygen around the body. The body converts vitamin B6 to pyroxide-5-phosphate (PLP), an enzyme that is used to release energy from starches and break down proteins. PLP is also used in the production of important chemicals in the brain.

Vitamin B6 is involved in the production of the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine and in the formation of myelin. The current daily recommended amount (RDA) for B6 is 1.3 to 1.7 mg for adults over the age of 19. The current recommended daily amount (RDA) for B6 is 1.3–1.7 mg for adults over 19.

Magnesium is a mineral that activates enzymes, contributes to energy production and helps regulate calcium levels, as well as copper, zinc, potassium, vitamin D, and other important nutrients in the body. It also plays a role in muscle health and helps manage sleep.

Vitamin B6 is a cofactor to absorb magnesium. The result of a 2018 study showed that oral Mg supplementation alleviated stress in healthy adults with low magnesia and the addition of vitamin B6 to Mg was not superior to Mg supplementation alone.[10]

Magnesium supplementation can have a calming effect on some children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). some studies have shown that vitamin B6 and magnesium have significant positive effects on the behavior of autistic children.

Vitamin C + Vitamin E

vitamins C (ascorbic acid) and E (α-tocopherol) are two food antioxidants necessary for humans. Vitamins C and E act in synergy for antioxidant defense. they can help protect the skin from sun damage. A combination of vitamins C and E provides very good protection against an insult to UVB, most of the protection being attributable to vitamin E. However, vitamin C is significantly better than vitamin E to protect against a phototoxic insult UVA-mediated in this animal model, while the combination is only slightly more effective than vitamin C alone.[11]

Vitamin E deficiency as un antioxidant plays a major role in the protection of erythrocyte membranes and nervous tissue. Vitamin C as an antioxidant provides protection against cellular damage induced by oxidative stress by eliminating reactive oxygen species, neutralizing lipid-dependent hydroperoxyl radicals based on vitamin E, and protecting proteins from alkylation by electrophilic lipid peroxidation products. These bioactivities are relevant for inflammatory disorders. [12]

The results of a 2004 study suggest that vitamins E and C may offer protection against Alzheimer’s disease when taken together in the higher doses available from individual supplements.

Vitamin C + Iron

Iron is an essential mineral that has many functions in your body. Iron is an important part of hemoglobin which carries oxygen in the blood. Iron is also necessary for energy metabolism and is necessary for the neurological development of developing embryos and the proper functioning of the immune system. Iron deficiency anemia is a well-known and all too common problem. The high fiber content of fruits and vegetables can prevent the absorption of iron. For this reason, strict vegetarians may find it difficult to get enough iron from the diet alone.

Vitamin C helps in the absorption of other micronutrients, especially iron. It captures non-heme iron and stores it in a form that is more easily absorbed by your body. Therefore, drinking citrus juice or eating other foods rich in vitamin C while eating iron-rich foods can increase your body’s absorption.

Vitamin C + Selenium

Selenium is a mineral found in soil, water, and certain foods. It is important to operate many bodily processes properly. Selenium is used for selenium deficiency, a disease that causes an underactive thyroid (autoimmune thyroiditis) and high blood pressure during pregnancy.  Some fish, brown rice, and eggs are a good source of selenium.

A diet rich in vitamin C led to an increase in the percentage of sodium selenite absorption and in the retention of absorbed selenium.  some fish, brown rice, and eggs are good sources of selenium.

Vitamin D + Vitamin K

Vitamin D3 is the vitamin most often associated with getting a healthy amount of sun exposure, allowing for the absorption of D3 through the skin. Vitamin K2 is a fat-soluble vitamin that plays a role in bone health and blood sugar maintenance. Along with vitamin K, supplementing with calcium and vitamin D leads to the improved bone, heart, and metabolic health.

Optimal levels of vitamin K prevents some of the problems of excess vitamin D and leads to better outcomes. Adequate levels of vitamins D and K reduce the risk of hip fractures, also improve insulin levels and blood pressure while reducing the risk of osteoarthritis.

 

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Vitamin D + Calcium

calcium is good for your bones and helps prevent osteoporosis. calcium helps build and maintain the bones and your teeth that contain 99.5% of your body’s total calcium. But calcium can only reach its full bone-building potential if your body has enough vitamin D.

Sunlight is actually the main source of vitamin D. However, staying in the sun without proper skin protection puts you at risk for skin cancer. If you are worried about this risk or if you live in a northern climate where exposure to the sun is not guaranteed for a year, many foods will provide you with your daily vitamin D intake.

Good sources of vitamin D include:  Milk enriched with vitamin D, Egg yolks, Oily fish.

Vitamin D increases the absorption of calcium. the role of vitamin D is to help your body absorb calcium efficiently.

The recommended daily intake of calcium varies according to age, sex, and hormonal status. One of the simplest and most effective methods of increasing your calcium intake is to take a calcium supplement by mouth. According to the National Osteoporosis Foundation (NOF)recommended calcium and vitamin D intake according to age, sex, and hormone status.

 

NOF Calcium and Vitamin D Recommendations
Children & Adolescents Calcium (Daily) Vitamin D (Daily)
1 through 3 years 500 mg 400 IU**
4 through 8 years 800 mg 400 IU**
9 through 18 years 1,300 mg 400 IU**
Adult Women & Men Calcium (Daily) Vitamin D (Daily)
19 through 49 years 1,000 mg 400-800 IU
50 years and over 1,200 mg 800-1000 IU
Pregnant & Breastfeeding Women Calcium (Daily) Vitamin D (Daily)
18 years and under 1,300 mg 400-800 IU
19 years and over 1,000 mg 400-800 IU

**NOF does not have specific vitamin D recommendations for these age groups.

Vitamin D + Magnesium

Magnesium is a very important macro-mineral that is vital for the growth and maintenance of teeth and bones, and for muscle relaxation. This mineral is necessary for the development and functioning of a healthy heart and nervous system. It also contributes to ensuring the good release of energy from ingested food, as well as ensuring the maintenance of cell walls. Magnesium is essential for the proper transport of glucose into the bloodstream and the release of the hormone insulin, which helps control blood sugar.

According to a 1991 study the pharmacological doses of vitamin D increase the absorption of Mg in animals deficient in vitamin D. However, a significant amount of absorption of Mg occurs independently of vitamin D. In addition, vitamin D can reduce Mg retention by increasing urinary excretion of Mg.[13]

  • Magnesium deficiency symptoms may include numbness, tingling, muscle cramps, seizures, muscle spasticity, personality changes, abnormal heart rhythms.
  • Signs of a magnesium overdose can include nausea, diarrhea, low blood pressure, muscle weakness, and fatigue. At very high doses, magnesium can be fatal.

People with diabetes, intestinal disease, heart disease, or kidney disease should not take magnesium before speaking with their health care provider.

Magnesium is essential to the activity of vitamin D. Magnesium by converting vitamin D into its active form can help calcium absorption. According to Dr. Carolyn Dean, MD, ND, magnesium expert and Medical Director of the nonprofit Nutritional Magnesium Association, adequate levels of magnesium in the body are essential for the absorption and metabolism not only of vitamin D but of calcium as well.

Vitamin D supplementation improves serum magnesium levels, especially in obese people. Magnesium is a cofactor for the biosynthesis, transport, and activation of vitamin D and improves the levels of vitamin D.

Vitamin D and magnesium deficiency increase the risk of cardiovascular disease, diabetes, metabolic diseases, and skeletal disorders.

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Vitamin D + Selenium

Selenium is a mineral that plays a role in many bodily functions. It can protect against cancer, thyroid problems, cognitive decline, and asthma. selenium taken orally in large doses (over 400 mcg) or for a long time may increase the risk of developing selenium toxicity.

Selenium deficiency can cause Keshan disease (a type of heart disease) and male infertility. The main symptoms of a selenium deficiency are infertility in men and women, muscle weakness, fatigue, mental fog, hair loss, weakened immune system.

Adequate selenium is especially important for some groups, such as people who have thyroid diseases like Graves disease, thyroid nodules, cancer, weakened immune function, and who are pregnant or already deficient.

Supplementing with vitamin D improves serum levels of selenium.

Vitamin E + Selenium

Vitamin E is a fat-soluble vitamin that its key function is to modify and stabilize blood fats so that blood vessels, the heart, and the whole body are better protected against injuries caused by free radicals. Vitamin E is commonly used outdoors to help repair dry skin, abrasions and scarring keep many tissues in your body. like your eyes, your skin, and your liver.

Vitamin E and selenium work synergistically to protect cells from damage caused by free radicals. An excess of one of these nutrients will help counter a deficiency in the other. Selenium exerts its antioxidant effect in the cell itself, while vitamin E acts in the cell membranes that surround the cell. A regular daily intake of these nutrients is necessary to minimize the tissue damage induced by oxidation and to act in the detoxification process of free radicals.

A 2014 study published in Harvard Health publishing by DR. Patrick J. Skerrett estates that Taking selenium, either alone or in combination with vitamin E, increased the risk of high-grade prostate cancer in men who started the study with high selenium levels, but not in those with low selenium levels.

Combined selenium and vitamin E deficiency have a great impact that the deficiency of one of the nutrients. Selenium deficiency aggravates the effects of deficiency of vitamin E and vitamin E can prevent selenium toxicity.

Selenium and vitamin E work synergistically to help with cancer prevention through stimulating apoptosis in abnormal cells and mitigate iron excess.

Vitamin E + Zinc

Zinc is a crucial mineral for the proper function of many enzymes in your body. It plays a pivotal role in the growth of children and is crucial to the development of healthy sperm and male hormones. It is essential for a healthy immune system and for the healing of wounds.  Zins have been shown to enhance other white blood cell functions. people with allergies and environmental sensitivities may benefit from zinc supplementation.

Some effects of zinc deficiency were helped by vitamin E supplementation. The vitamin E plus zinc supplement is used to manage acute diarrhea, help boost immune function, support optimal physical growth and development.

A 2018 study found the effects of zinc and vitamin E supplementation on metabolic status and gene expression related to insulin and lipid metabolism in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Zinc and vitamin E co supplementation for 6 weeks in women with GDM significantly improved insulin metabolism, lipid profile, and the gene expression levels of PPAR-γ and LDLR.[14]

Also, a 2011 study  In beta thalassemic patients, found that they were under enhanced oxidative stress conditions, and vitamin E deficiency. Administration of selective antioxidants revealed helpful effects, especially on serum vitamin E and zinc activity as components of the antioxidant system, and on the general well-being of the subjects. [15]

Vitamin K + Calcium

Vitamin K is a fat-soluble vitamin and is produced by bacteria that live in your colon. It is then absorbed into your bloodstream and put to work. This vitamin is rarely found in supplements because your body produces it. Vitamin K activates proteins that play a role in blood clotting, calcium metabolism, and heart health.

One of its most important functions is to regulate calcium deposits. In other words, it promotes calcification of bones and prevents calcification of blood vessels and kidneys. Supplements containing vitamin K helps the body absorb calcium.

 One study showed that calcium in tandem with vitamin K2 may well be the solution for bringing necessary bone benefits while circumventing an increased risk for heart disease.[16]

 

  • As always, see your healthcare professional to see what vitamins and minerals you may need and how to best take them.

References: 

[1]L Tesoriere , A Bongiorno, A M Pintaudi, R D’Anna, D D’Arpa, M A Livrea  Synergistic Interactions Between Vitamin A and Vitamin E Against Lipid Peroxidation in Phosphatidylcholine Liposomes 1996 Feb 1;326(1):57-63.  DOI: 10.1006/abbi.1996.0046

[2]Jean-Claude GUILLAND  Les interactions entre les vitamines A, D, E et K : synergie et/ou competition file:///D:/MY%20DOC%20WA/1-%20CONTENT/1-/references/ocl2011182p59.pdf

[3] Ling Lan, Spyros Basourakos, Dai Cui,  Xuemei Zuo, Wei Deng, Lili Huo, Hailing Chen, Guoying Zhang, Lili Deng, Bingyin Shi,  and Yong Luo, ATRA increases iodine uptake and inhibits the proliferation and invasiveness of human anaplastic thyroid carcinoma SW1736 cells: Involvement of β-catenin phosphorylation inhibition 2017 Oct 19. doi: 10.3892/ol.2017.7225

[4] Michael B Zimmermann Interactions of Vitamin A and Iodine Deficiencies: Effects on the Pituitary-Thyroid Axis  2007 May;77(3):236-40. PMID: 18214025 DOI: 10.1024/0300-9831.77.3.236

[5] D B Staab, R E Hodges, W K Metcalf, J L Smith Relationship Between Vitamin A and Iron in the Liver

1984 May;114(5):840-4.  DOI: 10.1093/jn/114.5.840

[6] M N García-Casal, M Layrisse, L Solano, M A Barón, F Arguello, D Llovera, J Ramírez, I Leets, E Tropper Vitamin A and Beta-Carotene Can Improve Nonheme Iron Absorption From Rice, Wheat and Corn by Humans  1998 Mar;128(3):646-50.  DOI: 10.1093/jn/128.3.646.   https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/9482776/

[7] file:///D:/MY%20DOC%20WA/1-%20CONTENT/1-%20VITAMIN%20AND%20MINERALS%20INTERACTION/references/Interactions%20between%20zinc%20and%20vitamin%20A%20an%20update1–.pdf

[8] BongJooLee, MartaJaroszewska, KonradDabrowski, SergiuszCzesny, JacquesRinchard Effects of dietary vitamin B1 (thiamine) and magnesium on the survival, growth and  histological indicators in lake trout (Salvelinus namaycush) juveniles https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cbpa.2012.03.008Get rights and content

[9] Rashmi S Tupe, Santosh G Tupe, Vaishali V Agte,  Dietary Nicotinic Acid Supplementation Improves Hepatic Zinc Uptake and Offers Hepatoprotection Against Oxidative Damage 2011 Jun 28;105(12):1741-9.  DOI: 10.1017/S0007114510005520.

[10]  Etienne Pouteau,  Marmar Kabir-Ahmadi, Lionel Noah, Andre Mazur,  Louise Dye, Juliane Hellhammer, Gisele Pickering, Claude Dubray,  Superiority of magnesium and vitamin B6 over magnesium alone on severe stress in healthy adults with low magnesemia : A randomized, single-blind clinical trial 2018 Dec 18. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0208454

[11] D Darr , S Dunston, H Faust, S Pinnell Effectiveness of Antioxidants (Vitamin C and E) With and Without Sunscreens as Topical Photoprotectants  1996 Jul; DOI: 10.2340/0001555576264268

[12]Maret G. Traber  and Jan F. Stevens Vitamins C and E: Beneficial effects from a mechanistic perspective 2011 May 25. doi: 10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2011.05.017

[13] L L Hardwick, M R Jones, N Brautbar, D B Lee Magnesium Absorption: Mechanisms and the Influence of Vitamin D, Calcium and Phosphate 1991 Jan;121(1):13-23. DOI: 10.1093/jn/121.1.13

[14] Vahidreza Ostadmohammadi, Mansooreh Samimi, Moein Mobini, Maryam Zarezade Mehrizi, Esmat Aghadavod, Maryam Chamani, Majid Dastorani, Zatollah Asami  The Effect of Zinc and Vitamin E Cosupplementation on Metabolic  Status and Its Related Gene Expression in Patients With Gestational Diabetes DOI: 10.1080/14767058.2018.1481952. Epub 2018 Jun 12.

[15] Mohammadreza Rashidi, PhD, Maryam Aboomardani, MD, Maryam Rafraf, Ph.D., Seyed-Rafie Arefhosseini, Ph.D., Abbasali Keshtkar, Ph.D., and Hamidreza Joshaghani, Ph.D. Effects of Vitamin E and Zinc Supplementation on Antioxidants in Beta-thalassemia major Patients 2011 Mar; 21(1): 8–14 PMCID: PMC3446117, PMID: 23056757

[16] Katarzyna Maresz, Ph.D. Proper Calcium Use: Vitamin K2 as a Promoter of Bone and Cardiovascular Health  2015 Feb; 14(1): 34–39.PMCID: PMC4566462 , PMID: 26770129

 

2 thoughts on “The best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals”

  1. Hi Shahin, 

    This is such a great article on the best synergistic Vitamins and Minerals. I have rarely ever seen such a thorough post on all possible supplements. i must compliment you for your study and writing such great content for us. i read it twice to grasp all the wonderful information u have given. The best is that u have listed out all the resources as well. Very nice indeed. 

    I see that your website has some other great content as well. Keep at it and i am sure your readers will benefit a lot.

    Aparna

    Reply
    • Hi Aparna,

      I’m very glad you liked the content. I try to provide basic information on vitamins and minerals to those interested in this topic. Obviously, there are gaps that I will try to fill by increasing the quality of posts. Thanks again for your kind words and I will appreciate it very much if you come to visit my site in the future.

      Good luck to you.

      Reply

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